John Steinbeck İngilizce Biyografisi

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    John Steinbeck İngilizce Biyografisi

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    John Steinbeck İngilizce Biyografisi

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    John Steinbeck İngilizce Biyografisi
    John Ernst Steinbeck, Jr.[2][3] (February 27, 1902 – December 20, 1968) was an American writer. He wrote the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Grapes of Wrath, published in 1939, and the novella Of Mice and Men, published in 1937. In all, he wrote twenty-seven books, including sixteen novels, six non-fiction books and several collections of short stories. In 1962 Steinbeck received the Nobel Prize for Literature.
    John Ernst Steinbeck III was born on February 27, 1902, in Salinas, California. He was of German and Irish descent. Johann Adolf Großsteinbeck (i.e., Grosssteinbeck), Steinbeck's grandfather, had shortened the family name from Großsteinbeck to Steinbeck when he migrated to the United States. The family farm in Heiligenhaus, Germany, is still today named "Großsteinbeck".
    His father, John Steinbeck Sr., served as Monterey County Treasurer. John's mother, Olive Hamilton Steinbeck, a former school teacher, fostered Steinbeck's love of reading and writing.[4] Steinbeck lived in a small rural town that was essentially a rough-and-tumble frontier place, set amid some of the world's most fertile land.[5] He spent his summers working on nearby ranches and later with migrants on the huge Spreckels ranch. He became aware of the harsher aspects of migrant life and the darker side of human nature – material exploited in such works as Of Mice and Men.[5] He also explored his surroundings, walking across local forests, fields and farms. [5]
    In 1919, Steinbeck graduated from Salinas High School and attended Stanford University intermittently until 1925, eventually leaving without a degree. He traveled to New York City and did odd jobs while pursuing his dream of becoming a writer. When he failed to get his work published, he returned to California and worked as a handyman at Lake Tahoe.[4][6]
    For many years, Steinbeck lived in a cottage in Pacific Grove on the Monterey Peninsula that was owned by his father, who supplied him with paper for his manuscripts.[7] In 1940, Steinbeck went on a voyage around the Gulf of California with his friend Ed Ricketts, collecting biological specimens. The Log from the Sea of Cortez describes his experiences on this trip.
    In 1943, after thirteen years of marriage, Steinbeck divorced Carol Henning and married Gwyndolyn "Gwyn" Conger, with whom he had two children - Thomas ("Thom") Myles Steinbeck in 1944 and John Steinbeck IV (nicknamed "Catbird"), in 1946 (John IV died in 1991). Steinbeck and his second wife were divorced in 1948. Within a week of her divorce being finalized in December, 1950, Steinbeck married stage-manager Elaine (Anderson) Scott (1914-2003), the ex-wife of actor Zachary Scott, a marriage which lasted until his death in 1968.[8]
    In 1948, Steinbeck toured the Soviet Union with renowned photographer Robert Capa. They visited Moscow, Kiev, Tbilisi, Batumi and Stalingrad. His book about their experiences, A Russian Journal, was illustrated with Capa's photos. That year, he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters.
    In 1966, Steinbeck traveled to Tel Aviv to visit the site of Mount Hope, a farm community established in Israel by his grandfather, whose brother, Friedrich Grosssteinbeck, was murdered by Arab marauders on January 11, 1858. [9]
    John Steinbeck died in New York City on December 20, 1968 of heart disease or heart attack. An autopsy showed nearly complete occlusion of the main coronary arteries.[8]
    In accordance with his wishes, his body was cremated and an urn containing his ashes was interred at his family gravesite at Garden of Memories Memorial Park in Salinas. His ashes were placed with those of the Hamiltons (grandparents). His third wife, Elaine, was buried with him in 2004.[10] He had earlier written to his doctor that he felt deeply "in his bones" that he would not survive his physical death, and that the biological end of his life was the final end to it.[10]
    Steinbeck's first novel, Cup of Gold, published in 1929, is based on the life and death of privateer Henry Morgan. It centers on Morgan's assault and sacking of the city of Panama, sometimes referred to as the 'Cup of Gold', and on the woman, fairer than the sun, who was said to be found there.[8]
    After Cup of Gold, between 1931 and 1933 Steinbeck produced three shorter works. The Pastures of Heaven, published in 1932, comprised twelve interconnected stories about a valley near Monterey, that was discovered by a Spanish corporal while chasing runaway American Indian slaves. In 1933 Steinbeck published The Red Pony, a 100-page, four-chapter story weaving in memories of Steinbeck's childhood.[8] To a God Unknown follows the life of a homesteader and his family in California, depicting a character with a primal and pagan worship of the land he works.
    Steinbeck achieved his first critical success with the novel Tortilla Flat (1935), which won the California Commonwealth Club's Gold Medal.[8] The book portrays the adventures of a group of classless and usually homeless young men in Monterey after World War I, just before U.S. prohibition. The characters, who are portrayed in ironic comparison to mythic knights on a quest, reject nearly all the standard mores of American society in enjoyment of a dissolute life centered around wine, lust, camaraderie and petty theft. The book was made into the 1942 film Tortilla Flat, starring Spencer Tracy, Hedy Lamarr and John Garfield, a friend of Steinbeck's.
    Steinbeck began to write a series of "California novels" and Dust Bowl fiction, set among common people during the Great Depression. These included In Dubious Battle, Of Mice and Men and The Grapes of Wrath. Of Mice and Men, about the dreams of a pair of migrant laborers working the California soil, was critically acclaimed.[8]
    The stage adaptation of Of Mice and Men was a hit, starring Broderick Crawford as the mentally child-like but physically powerful itinerant farmhand "Lennie," and Wallace Ford as Lennie's companion, "George." However, Steinbeck refused to travel from his home in California to attend any performance of the play during its New York run, telling Kaufman that the play as it existed in his own mind was "perfect" and that anything presented on stage would only be a disappointment. Steinbeck would write two more stage plays (The Moon Is Down and Burning Bright).
    Of Mice and Men was rapidly adapted into a 1939 Hollywood film, in which Lon Chaney, Jr. (who had portrayed the role in the Los Angeles production of the play) was cast as Lennie and Burgess Meredith as "George."[11] Steinbeck followed this wave of success with The Grapes of Wrath (1939), based on newspaper articles he had written in San Francisco. The novel would be considered by many to be his finest work. It won the Pulitzer Prize in 1940, even as it was made into a notable film directed by John Ford, starring Henry Fonda as Tom Joad, who was nominated for an Academy Award for the part.
    The success of The Grapes of Wrath was not free of controversy, as Steinbeck's liberal political views, portrayal of the negative side of capitalism, and mythical reinterpretation of the historical events of the Dust Bowl migrations led to backlash against the author, especially close to home.[12] In fact, claiming the book was both obscene and misrepresented conditions in the county, the Kern County Board of Supervisors banned the book from the county's public schools and libraries in August 1939. This ban lasted until January 1941.[13]
    Of the controversy, Steinbeck wrote, "The vilification of me out here from the large landowners and bankers is pretty bad. The latest is a rumor started by them that the Okies hate me and have threatened to kill me for lying about them. I'm frightened at the rolling might of this damned thing. It is completely out of hand; I mean a kind of hysteria about the book is growing that is not healthy."
    The film versions of The Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and Men (by two different movie studios) were in production simultaneously, allowing Steinbeck to spend a full day on the set of The Grapes of Wrath and the next day on the set of Of Mice and Men.




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